The Concept of Think-Pair-Share Technique
The Concept of Think-Pair-Share
Technique plays an important role in teaching learning activity. Edward Anthony defines techniques were the specific activities manifested in the classroom that were consistent with a method and therefore were in harmony with an approach as well. It is a manner that is used by the teacher to convey the materials in the classroom. It includes a whole of the activities since the teaching learning process in the classroom.
Think-pair-share is one of the techniques in cooperative language learning approach in which the students work together in a group/ pairs. Cooperative language learning is the functional use of small groups through which students work together to maximize their own and each others learning.
Olsen and Kagan propose the following key elements of successful group-based in CL:
1) Positive interdependence
The essence of cooperative learning is that it has two interrelated components; an academic and social element. Students must feel that they need each other in order to complete the group’s task. Every student has two responsibilities; to learn the assigned material and also make sure that all other members of their group do likewise.
2) Group Formation
Group formation is important factor in creating the positive interdependence. There are some factors that should be considered in setting up the group they are;
a) Group size is decided depends on the tasks they have to carry out, the age of the students, and the time limit of the lesson.
b) Assigning the students to group can be a teacher-selected, random or student-selected. According to Johnson and Johnson, “more elaborate thinking, more frequent giving and receiving of explanations, and greater perspective taking in discussing material seem to occur in heterogeneous group, all of which increase the depth of understanding, the quality of reasoning, and the accuracy of long-term retention”. So that, the heterogeneous group becomes more effectively applied in the classroom.
c) Each group members has a specific role to play in a group. They should enact their role successfully for the group to function effectively.
3) Individual accountability
The goal of cooperative language learning is held accountable for the student’s own learning. It involves both group and individual performance. The students should feel that they are accountable to complete the task and to master the material both as a member of group and individually.
4) Social skill
Social skill is about the way students interact with each other as teammates. The students learn to work cooperatively in groups by making interpersonal functioning from an important learning goal.
5) Structuring and structures
Structuring and structures refers to ways of organizing students’ interaction and different ways students are to interact.
Cooperative language learning is not simply as learning in groups, but the students work in a group/ pair to improve their own capability and create the positive interdependence with the others. The cooperative language learning is developed to achieve the learning result such; academic achievement, diversity, tolerance and social skill development.
Think-pair-share is developed by F. Lyman, It is designed to provide students with “food for thought” on a given topics enabling them to formulate individual ideas and share these ideas with another student. It can encourage the students’ participant in the classroom.
A think-pair-share activity is when learners take a minute to ponder the previous lesson, later to discuss it with one or more of their peers, finally to share it with the class as part of a formal discussion.
This technique gives the students chance to do the task by their selves and also to work together with their partner. This technique can maximize the students’ participation. The students can show their existence and their participant to the other through sharing activity in the classroom.
Based on quotations above, it can be inferred that the think-pair-share technique is the technique in cooperative learning where the students work in pair. This technique can encourage the students’ participant in the learning activity. It is begun with “thinking”, the students are given a question then the students think the responses and discussed with their “pair” and finally the students “share” in a large group/ class.
b. The Purposes of Think-Pair-Share
There are some purposes of think-pair-share such as; The technique provides “think time” to increase the quality of the students’ responses. The teaching learning activity should take the students’ participant. It can be seen from the students’ responses. The students need time to process new ideas in order to store the in memory. Therefore, to get a good responses from the students, they should be given a time to think about the idea.
The students become more actively involved in thinking about the concepts presented in the lesson. When students talk over new ideas, they are forced to make sense of those new ideas in terms of their prior knowledge. Sometimes the students find some misunderstands about the topic. Those are often revealed and resolved during this discussion stage. Students are more willing to participate since they do not feel the peer pressure involved in responding in front of the whole class.
c. Procedures of Think-Pair-Share
This technique is developed by Jac McTighe and Frank T. Lyman, Jr., Think-pair-share is a discussion cycle during which the class is:
1) Presented with a question.
The teacher poses a question to the students. The open-ended question is more likely to generate more discussion and higher order thinking. It should be consideration that the question should be related to their real live in order the students can be motivated to take a part in the classroom activities.
2) Giving time to think individually about the problem.
The students are given a time to think about the answer. The times depend on the question or task and the class size. The think-pair-share gives time at least three minute (it can be longer for more complicated questions).
3) Asked to talk with each other in pairs.
The students are given a time to think the answer or response by their selves. Then, the teacher offers the students to get together with their pair and encourage the students to discuss with the partner.
4) Share responses with larger group.
Finally, the students share the discussion result to the classroom. In this step, the students will discuss in larger group. Therefore, the students get many responses from the other. Through this activity, the students are expected be able to construct the knowledge.