Definition of CSR
The word “Collaborative Strategic Reading” comes from the word “collaborative”, the word “strategic=strategy”, and the word “reading”. Collaborative is several people or groups of people working together. Collaborative means several people are work together in small group towards a common goal. The students are responsible for one another as well as their own. Thus the success of one student helps other students to be successful.
Strategy or strategic can be defined as a plan to achieve a particular purpose to gain an advantages or overall aim. Strategy can also be defined as “a general direction set for the company and its various components to achieve a desired state in the future. From the definition above, the researcher conclude that strategy is a plan that has chosen to get or to achieve one goal or purpose.
Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is a combined teaching reading strategy used to stimulate the students’ comprehension on the text. Klingner and Vaughn define Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) as a set of instructional strategies designed to help students with diverse abilities acquire and practice comprehension strategies for use with informational text. Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) teaches students to use comprehension strategies while working cooperatively.
Based on definition above, it can be conclude that Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is a strategy to teach students works well in classroom or working cooperatively and helps students improve their reading comprehension.
The goals of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) are to improve reading comprehension and increase conceptual learning in ways that maximize students’ participation.
The Strategies of CSR
Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) can be implemented in the four strategies namely:
Preview is a strategy to active students’ prior knowledge, to facilitate their predictions about what they will read, and to generate interest. Preview consists of two activities: brainstorming and making predictions. Brainstorming is what we do already know about the topic. Prediction is what we think we will learn about the topic when we read the passage.
The purposes of previewing are to generate interest and enthusiasm for what they are about to read, stimulate their background knowledge, previous experiences, and vocabulary related to what they are about to read, and provide an opportunity for them to develop hypotheses about what they will read and predictions about what they will learn.
The teacher helps the students with previewing by reminding them to use all of the visual clues in the text such as pictures, charts or graphs, and to look at the headings or subheadings used throughout the passage.
2) Click and Clunk
Click and clunk is a strategy to monitor the students’ understanding during reading, and to use fix-up strategies when they realize their failure to understand text.
When students understand the information, it “click”; when it does make sense, it “clunk”. Students work together to identify difficult words or concepts in the passage and to apply fix-up strategies to solve their problem.
3) Get the gist
Getting the gist means that students are able to state the main idea of a paragraph or cluster of paragraphs in their own words, as succinctly as possible. Students are taught to identify the most important who or what in the paragraph, and then identify the most important person, place, or thing.
4) Wrap Up
Wrap-Up is strategy that teaches students to generate questions and to review important ideas in the text they have read. The purpose of Wrap-Up is to give students an opportunity to review what they have read to assist with understanding and remembering what they have learned.
The Procedure of CSR
Procedures of CSR for using in group are: first, the teacher assigns students to group. Each group should include about five students. Then the teacher assigns roles to students. The student has a chance to try out all of the roles. These roles may include:
The Leader guides the group how to implementation of CSR, prompts the group member when to do their jobs and helps the group stays on task.
2) Clunk expert
Clunk expert ask the group if they have any “clunks” helps the group uses clunk cards and summarizes the meaning of each “clunk” so they can write in their learning log.
3) Gist expert
Gist expert guides the group toward the development of a gist and determines that the gist contains the most important idea(s) but no unnecessary details.
Announcer calls on different group members to read or share an idea and makes sure that everyone participates and only one person talks at a time.
There are some steps to apply Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) in cooperative learning group are as follow:
Step 1: Whole class introduction. The teacher introduces the topic, teaches key vocabulary, and provides instruction.
Step 2: Cooperative group activity (preview, click and clunk, get the gist and wrap up). Each group member plays an assigned role and fills out a CSR learning log during the activity.
Step 3: Whole class wrap up strategy. A teacher discusses the day’s reading passage, reviews clunks, answer question, or shares some review ideas.
During the cooperative group activity, the teacher’s role is to circulate among the groups, clarifying clunks, modeling strategy usage, modeling cooperative learning techniques, redirecting students to remain on-task, and providing assistance.
d. The Advantages of CSR
The advantages of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) are:
1) CSR provide meaningful roles for each group.
2) The students become more active and independent reader.
3) Providing student-led instruction that is highly useful for students in comprehending content area text as well as deciphering vocabulary and multi-syllabic words.
4) CSR provides peer interaction that occurs as students’ works in heterogeneous group that can promote interest and persistence in the reading text.
5) CSR makes students actively construct knowledge about text in social environment through interacting with the other members of their group.
6) Improves students’ accuracy and fluency of oral reading and makes gain in word identification and comprehension.
3. Teaching Reading Comprehension Skills through CSR
Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) is a strategy to teach students how to read the text by together or cooperatively. It means that students are responsible for one another learning as well as their own and that reaching the goal implies that students have helped each other to understand and learn.
Here are the steps of teaching reading comprehension skills through Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR):
1) Before reading activity
The teacher assigns students to group. Each group should include about five students. Afterwards, the teacher makes clear how to implement the strategies to whole class. Then the teacher introduces the text and selects the topic which will be discussed. The teacher guides to back up the students in identifying what text is about. The teacher aids the students with previewing by reminding them to employ all of the visual clues in the text, such as pictures, charts, or graphs and then the teacher demands them to predict about what the today’s topic together.
2) During reading activity
Now while students are reading, they’re now working in their small groups or pairs, they are going to implement two strategies that the teacher has previously taught them. These two strategies are “Click and Clunk” and “Get the Gist”. The teacher asks the students to discuss about the process click and clunk to monitor their comprehension of the text. When students understand the information, it “clicks”; when it does make sense, it “clunk, with their group. Then, after they comprehend each paragraph, they identify the most important idea of each paragraph.
3) After reading activity
In post reading activity or after reading activity, the teacher offers to the students some reading test based on the text they have read. Then the teacher asks them to discuss the result together, review clunks or share some review ideas. The goals are to improve students’ knowledge, understanding, and memorizing of what they have read.