The Definition of Brainstorming
There are some definitions of brainstorming technique which is used in writing. Below are the definitions which taken from some experts.
As asserted by Brown, brainstorming is a technique whose purpose is to initiate some sort of thinking process. To put more simply, brainstorming is a technique which help the people to overcome their problems in writing. For example, the writers who use brainstorming technique in writing because they have difficulties to develop main topic while they are elaborating or exploring the ideas. But when they use brainstorming, it will help them in elaborating or exploring the ideas.
Besides, according to Alan, brainstorming is a structured process for having ideas. In other words, brainstorming is process of thinking about an object. It has some procedures which organized to produce several ideas. The ideas can be an opinion, feeling, purpose, or thought. So, when this technique is used in writing, it can help the writer to generate ideas relate to the main topic which they have.
Furthermore, David stated that brainstorming is a very specific process. It essentially consists of freeform thinking out loud. It would be better to say that brainstorming is thinking as free as possible, no impression and no limitation. They just call the idea in the mind. Hence, they get many ideas which will be used in writing process happily.
Moreover, Brendan explained that brainstorming means experimenting with word and idea associations, particularly making unusual sssociations, to see what happens. In other word, brainstorming is the process to find several ideas which is done by analyzing the word correlation to get new idea. It also can be done by thinking critically about something, so they get the whole information.
To put more simply, the writers should keep in writing during the ideas in their mind, consequently they write continuously. To save time, the writers can write the ideas in the phrase quickly, or the key word only. It means not complete sentence. Those make the writers create many ideas and save more times. In other words, by brainstorming the writers will get easy way to start writing in the net stages. Besides, it also can guide the writers in developing the topic. In the contrary, without brainstorming before writing, sometimes the writers are confused while they are in the process of writing. They don’t know what will they write and how to start writing. Therefore, brainstorming is very importance and very useful to be carried out previously.
Based on the quotation and explanation above, the researcher takes conclusion that brainstorming is the useful technique which helps the writers generate many ideas creatively. While brainstorming a topic, they are generating many ideas like opinion, imaginations, feeling, and thought which used to develop main topic. By having many ideas, they write easily in the next sentence or paragraph.
The Principles of Brainstorming
According to the dictionary, principle is a law, a rule or a theory that something is based on. It means that principle can be seen as basic rule. Many principles should be known before the writers use brainstorming technique in order to use it well. Those principles or basic rules which are quoted from the experts will be explained below.
According to Osborn, there are four basic rules in brainstorming, they are:
1) Criticism is ruled out: adverse judgment of ideas must be withheld until later. It means that criticism of ideas are withheld during the brainstorming session as the purpose is on generating varied and unusual ideals and extending or adding to these ideas. Criticism is reserved for the evaluation stage of the process. This allows the members to feel comfortable with the idea of generating unusual ideas.
2) ‘Freewheeling’ is welcomed: the wilder the idea, the better; it is easier to tame down than to think up. It means that unusual ideas are welcomed as it is normally easier to “tame-down” than to ”tame-up” as new ways of thinking and looking at the world may provide better solutions.
3) Quantity is wanted: the greater the number of ideas, the more the likelihood of winners. It means that the greater number of ideas is generated the greater chance of producing a radical and effective solution.
4) Combination and improvement are sought: in addition to contributing ideas of their own, participants should suggest how ideas of others can be turned into better ideas; or how two or more ideas can be joined into still another idea. It means that it is not only a variety of ideas, but also ways to combine ideas in order to make them better.
From the explanation above, the researcher conclude that the instruction of brainstorming should be specific and clear. It is clear that the brainstorming technique helps the process of think to get a way in solving a problem. Besides that, this technique tends to produce the quantity of the idea, not the quality in short time. The writers just write down every idea in their mind, so they can generate ideas creatively. It means they should narrow the topic become specific one. Then the principles make the writers success in brainstorming before writing.
The Procedure of Brainstorming
The brainstorming process is a series in which the writers generate the ideas about the particular topic that they have been chosen. Likewise, they imagine something to call the ideas. During the process of brainstorming, the writers permit to approach the topic with an open mind. They can free as their self to some up ideas.
This is the example of brainstorming procedur which asserted by Douglas:
Let’s think about the future for a moment. Let’s focus our attention on how might your present of future job. Have you thought about the changes that might occur in your field? To help you think about this question, you are going to make list of ideas concerning change in your field or in the field you plan to enter.
a) Prepare two sheet of paper with the following:
(1) What changes have occurred in my field in the last twenty years? Your field-today’s date
(2) What changes do I expect to occur in my field in the next twenty years? Your Field-The date twenty years from now
b) As quickly as possible, think as many as ideas as you can to answer the question on sheet (1).
(1) Take between five and ten minutes to list every idea that come in your mind.
(2) Do not evaluate your ideas. That will come later.
c) When you have written down, everything you can think of, go over the list to evaluate what you have written. Cross the ideas that don’t fit.
d) Repeat this process (steps b and c) for sheet 2.
This example shows that there are some general steps in the brainstorming and based on the example, the researcher infers several steps in brainstorming as follows:
a) Choose the topic for your writing.
b) Write the topic on the paper.
c) Brainstorm the topic.
d) List or write the ideas or the words under the topic.
e) When you have written all, revise all the ideas which are not necessary.
d. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Brainstorming
There are several advantages when the writers are using the brainstorming technique. On the other hand, there are also the disadvantages. Furthermore, Alan explained that brainstorming helps us think more clearly and creatively. On the other hand, when the writers use brainstorming in writing, they will keep on writing because they have many ideas in their mind. Therefore, they need few minutes for writing when they generate the ideas.
Here are some advantages of brainstorming technique:
1) The students don’t have to be a highly qualified expert of highly paid consultant to use it.
2) Easy to understand, it’s not a complicated technique.
3) It is inexpensive.
4) It is quick way of generating ideas.
5) Encourages creative thinking “out of the box’.
6) Generates ideas and solutions that can be used elsewhere.
7) Provide an opportunity of widespread participation and involvement.
However, brainstorming also has many disadvantages as follows:
1) It can take too much time if the group is not properly controlled and is allowed to run for too long.
2) It raises the expectations of the brainstorming group by considering ideas that will never be implemented.
From the explanation above, the researcher concludes that brainstorming has many advantages and disadvantages. The advantages can help the students to generating ideas well, but the disadvantages is not as easy as to be implemented.
The Definition of Brainstorming