Definition of Metacognitive Learning Strategy
Many kinds of learning strategy, according to Rebecca, learning strategies divided into two parts, they are direct strategies (memory strategies, cognitive strategies, and compensation strategies) and indirect strategies (metacognitive strategies, affective strategies, and social strategies). It means that metacognitive is one of learning strategies or a part of indirect learning strategies.
Peirce explains that metacognition is thinking about one’s own thinking. Can be specifically, metacognition is appreciation which one already knows, together with a correct anxiety of the learning task and what knowledge also what skills it demand. Combined with the ability to make the correct corollary by using one’s strategic knowledge to a definite situation, and to do efficiently and dependable. The students who know about the suitable learning strategies use the metacognition in the particular situation. In conclution that metacognition is the engine which motivate or controlled self-directed learning . To put it more simply metacognitive strategy is an appreciation of what one already knows, together with a correct apprehension of the learning task and what knowledge and skills it requires, combined with the ability to make correct inferences about how to apply one’s strategic knowledge to a particular situation, and to do so efficiently and reliably.
Students need to monitor their application of study strategies. Metacognitive awareness of their learning processes is as important as their monitoring of their learning of the course content. As asserted by Chamot, Learning strategies that selected to wide in the model based on the students usefulness and applicability to a spacious range of learning task. Every student can use metacognitive strategies for modalities in four skills; listening, speaking, reading, and writing. In other words, students can use metacognitive strategy to help them to manage in English four skills.
Furthermore, Chamot explains that using metacognitive model to guide instruction , the English teacher will supply students with a powerful approach that can help them throughout their lives. In addition a good learners must be using strategies, because learning strategy can help them to manage their learning. Likewise asserted by Chamot, from becoming aware of their strategies use the students can make active conclusion to help them face learning challenges.
Based on above explanations the concept of metacognitive has become one of the most accretive issues for cognitively oriented instructional psychologists because it addresses two of its major concern; first it goes to the very heart of the cognitivists’ assumption of the learner as an active organism. Second, and related, the concept of metacognition addresses one of the perennial problems instruction that of transfer or generalization of what has been learned.
Klinger explains that many kinds have been made in the importance of metacognition, that is thinking about thinking. Metacognition is process by the reader’s conscious awareness or cognitive controlled. The metacognitive process is used by the readers for involving in monitoring understanding, selecting what to remember and setting the strategies used when reading. The metacognitive strategies is used by the reader for include practice (i.e., repeating some information to increase recall), reviewing, underlining important words or sections of a passage, note taking and also the checking understanding. It means that metacognitive is the knowledge and awareness one has of their own thinking processes and strategies and the ability to evaluate and regulate one’s own thinking processes. It is learning to think about the how and why of what one does.
Snyder states that metacognition consists of two basic processes occurring simultaneously which are monitoring your progress as you learn, and making changes and adapting your strategies if you perceive you are not doing so well. In addition in metacognitive Self-awareness promotes self-regulation. If students are aware of how committed (or uncommitted) they are to reaching goals, of how strong (or weak) is their disposition to persist, and of how focused (or wandering) is their attention to a thinking or writing task, they can regulate their commitment, disposition, and attention.
The procedure of Metacognitive Learning strategy
Based on studies which are involving successful and unsuccessful language learners, Rubin states that strategies as the techniques or devices which the learner can use to get some knowledge, which can conclude that successful language learners have the strong volition to communicate, ready to guess when unsure, do not afraid when get being wrong. Moreover, a good language learners always practice and monitor their own language also in around them. Rubin writes down that working of the strategies depend on some variables like as target language proficiency, age, situationand cultural differences.
Rebecca states that in metacognitive strategy consist of three parts; centering of learning, arranging and planning of learning and evaluating of learning.
Moreover, according to Chamot, in metacognitive consists of four processes are: planning, monitoring, problem solving and evaluating .
The four strategic process is not strictly sequential but can be used as needed depending on the demands of the task and interaction between tasks and learners. Figure 1.1 can be illustrated the recursive nature of metacognitive learning strategy.
Metacognitive Learning Strategy
Planning strategies helps people develop and use thinking. They encourage thinking so that students reflect before embarking on the task rather than dive into the activities prepared and with little thought about what would happen. During the planning process, good students think about how they will approach and carry out the task. They set a goal to think about their goals for the task, and they come with plan of strategies to helping them through assignments so that they will meet those purpose. They decided to focus their attention on the task and ignore distractions. Learners are well thought of what they already know about the duties and related topics and then predict what they may need to do base on this information . It means that goal setting involves understanding the task and deciding what students should get out of it.
After a good students have prepared an approach. They use a monitoring strategy to measure the effectiveness of their current tasks. Students monitor their comprehension and production with the thought of whether they understand when reading. They also think about how the information they receive or producing fits in with their knowledge of the world based on their own experiences. The following a monitoring strategies to help students organize their learning . In other words, this strategy involves checking the students understanding by asking themselves.
After completing part or all the task, good students reflects how well it went. This process allows them to see if they carry out their plans and to examine how well a strategy helps. They evaluate their suitability predictions and guesses. If that was not true, the good students think about how they can learn to make better next time. Regardless of whether positive or negative self-evaluation, it is important for students to learn from it so that they can make improvements on the next task .
When students have difficulty either at any time during the task, they chose the strategy of the problem-solving process. For example, if they do not know the meaning of a word, they make an educated guess based on all available information. They use any resource available to them to solve the problem, whether it comes from within themselves, through reference materials, or from anyone else. Students who are actively and appropriately involved in problem solving is more successful at learning the task . It means that this strategy involves substituting known words or phrases when the students do not know or cannot remember a specific word or phrase.
Moreover, Chamot states that examples of metacognitive strategy processes in reading are when a student begins to read the story in the target language, he plans to set his goals or thinking about what he wants out of the story and make predictions about the story based on the title and the prior knowledge about the topic. Then he moved to the monitoring process and, as he read, check whether the story is plausible. However, when he read he decided that, based on new information in the story, he had to go back and revise some plans. He may decide to change the predictions, bringing new background knowledge, or even change the destination. He kept reading and then decided to stop and evaluate himself after completing only the first part of the story. If she feels she does not understand important ideas, he may have to go the problem-solving process as required for the task, although not always in order .
In addition, The situation of learning activities can bring metacognitive strategies are: (1) students were asked to justify or defend a conclusion objection, (2) students are faced with a problem and are given opportunities to formulate questions, (3) students were asked to make a conclusion, consideration, and correct decisions.
Aspects of students’ metacognitive activity that must grind down by the teacher are: (1) awareness to know the information, (2) to monitor what they know and how to do it with self-questioning, (3) regulation, comparing and contrasting the more possible solutions.Therefore, metacognitive learning strategy is very important for students to become optimize and achieve their learning purposes.
That all explanations of strategies above is very important for learners to get their attention and energy on focusing to certain learning task or the materials in learning process. Students who apply these strategies have prospect to organize and planning their learning in order to get these best. In addition the more students are aware of their thinking processes as they learn, the more they can control such matters as goals, dispositions, and attention. When students monitor their learning, they can become aware of potential problems.
The Advantages and Disadvantages Metacognitive Learning Strategy
Based on all concept above writer conclude that advantages and disadvantages using metacognitive strategy. There are;
1. The advantages of using metacognitive strategy
• Metacognition enhances and enriches the learning experience.
• Applying metacognitive strategies such as self-awareness and self monitoring is to develop independent learners who can control their own learning and learn how to learn for life.
• Metacognition provides self-monitoring, which is a step-by-step process of evaluation during the learning process.
• Metacognition develops higher learning and problem solving skills
2. Disadvantages of poor metacognitive strategy
• Poor self-esteem
• Difficulty in problem solving
• Poor reading comprehension
• Poor language and communication skills
• Difficulty in obtaining success in society