The Concept of Conversational Strategies
Etymologically, the word “conversational” in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary is derived from the word ‘conversational’ that can be defined as follows: 1). not formal, 2). connected with conversation. It means that conversational is an informal talk involving a small group. It is involves a free spontaneous discussion by two or more persons of any topic of common interest.
Terminologically, there are some opinion of the experts that have different definitions for conversational strategies, but here the writer will take several definitions depending on the experts as follows: Harmer states that the real talk if the students are to be involved in spontaneous face to face conversation outside the classroom with competent English language speakers. Furthermore, Bambang states that Conversation must not be confused with oral practice. The activities can involve real communication are spontaneous and essential for language learning.
Sanggam saids that Conversation is the combination of the incremental and variation types of the drill. The teacher introduces the trompt and a number of forms are given with instructions to change all of them to a given pattern that the students make the conversations as to make the correct fluency, pronounciation, vocabulary, grammatical accuracy and interactional strategies as their response.
Harmer states that elements of speaking include as conversational strategies to interaction depend on a knowledge. In the speaking practice, the speakers allowed to used conversational strategies in order they get a knowledge by the best topics. By element of speaking as conversational strategies, the speakers will be able to find what the best topics they are used in speaking practice.
Moreover, Jeffery states that the importance of conversations are trying to motivate people, get them to be more productive, or help them solve a problem. Conversations are largely made up of questions and answers that are constantly heard in everyday English that will be more easy and quick to be received and understood for the students’ performance if they used in everyday English. Iskandar Wassid and Dadang Sunendar states that strategy is from the word Yunnan strategia which means the art of war or war captain. Based on this definition, so strategy is a plan to operate in a war, likes the step to manage a position, or way to war, army or navy. Strategy also can be defined as a skill to manage an event.
In general seldom is stated that strategy is a technique that is used to get a purpose. Moreover, J. R. David in Wina Sanjaya’s book said that strategy is “a plan, method, or series of activities designed to achieves a particular educational.” Based on the quotations above, it can be inferred that conversational strategies is speaking strategy that involve face to face interaction and informal talk of the learning activity to manage an event and achieves a particular of educational goals. Sometimes the speakers should speak spontaneous and oral their speaking period, that depend on the conversation. If the conversation is easy, the speakers will be spontaneous with their speaking performance.
The Rules and Structure of Conversational Strategies.
Oral practice of each utterance of the dialog segment to be presented that entire class repetition, half class, groups, and individuals generally preceded by the students if mini dialogs are used engage in similar practice. The language of face to face conversation is the basic and primary use of language, all others being best described in terms of their manner of deviation from that base. The students need to be aware of what real conversations looks like and it should give them help in using some of the more important phrases. The speakers of English will have to be able to speak in a range of different genres and situations of conversational and conversational repair strategies.
The speakers will need to be able to survive in typical functional exchanges.
In addition, Harmer states that conversational rules and structure further categories of discourse as conversational openings, interrupting, topic shift, and closings. In other words, if face to face conversation is to be succesful the students need to be able to ask for repetition by using formulaic expressions, repeating up to the point of conversation breakdown. The students use the various discourse markers or repair strategies at all level that the students conversational skills as their English improves.
The Types of Conversational Strategies
Jeffery proposes the types in conversational strategies as follows:
a) Initiative Conversations
When we talk in a way that proposes something new or different, such as introducing a new goal, proposing an idea, or launching a change in strategy we are having an initiative conversation.
b) Understanding Conversations
When we want people to understand the meaning of our ideas, relate idea them to their current jobs about the future so that they will consider working with us that is having an understanding conversations.
c) Performance Conversations
When we want people to take specific actions or procedure specific results. Performance conversations, when properly conducted, will lead people to work, perform tasks and produce results.
d) Closure Conversations
When we thank someone for their work, summarize the status of a project or tell people that a job is complete.
There are four types that must be passed for the students to use the conversational strategy correctly. The students must speak used the best topics. They should focus on the best topics that are performance in conversation such as fluency, pronunciation, vocabulary, grammatical accuracy and interaction strategies. Conversation by following types correctly then the students will get maximum result. By those types above, the speakers just concentrate on the students’ activity in conversation practice. The speakers can find to used the topics and speak English directly with their own word.