The Definition of Technique
The word technique in oxford learner’s dictionary is method of doing something that need skill. Basically, there are many definitions of education experts as follows: J.R David defines “technique is a plan, method, or series of activities designed to achieves a particular education goal ( J.R David : 1976).
Morever Syaiful Bahri Djamarah states “technique can be defined as common role of teaching-learning activity to achieve determined goal.”
The Concept Of SQ4R Technique
As Richardson states “One such technique that has proven effective as a study and reading technique is SQ4R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review, and Reflect) where SQ4R provides a systematic way of comprehending and studying text (Richardson and Morgan, 1997).
Richard-Amato & Snow states SQ4R is a technique students can use to comprehend content reading.First,student survey the chapter by skimming it, looking at headings and visuals.Second, students question, writing down any questions they have about the pictures, charts, or subheadings, etc.The third step is to read the passage.The fourth step is reciting,where student answer their own questions from what they learned in the reading.The fifth step is recording,when students write down their answers. Finally, the students review what they wrote. As we know that “smart” or intelligence people are different from other people in that they ask lots of question, actively seek answers, and have a large vocabulary than others. Start with an attitude when reading a text: if you are not reading and studying the text and notes as if you are preparing to take a test, you are wasting your time. A sample of the SQ4R method is show here. Which the SQ4R technique stands for: Survey, question, read, recite, review and reflect.
The SQ4R procedure.
Moreover there is information from internet that explained that SQ4R is Survey, question, read, recite, review and reflect, it explained the system of SQ4R as follows:
a) Survey the chapter
b) Make a question for each heading and subheading.
c) Read the information one paragraph at a time.
d) Recite the important information prom paragraph.
e) Review the information learned in the chapter.
f) Reflect the information learned from the chapter.
Several examples of how this technique is used through out the reading process are students preview text to develop predictions about topic. The students then read actively, searching for answers to the questions they have generated. By summarizing information, students are able to monitor their own comprehension through review.The researcher clarifies of SQ4R Technique as follows:
Survey is measure an area of land and to record the details of it. Basically the surveying’s goal is to help you in getting the important questions answered in the chapter. When surveying written materials, our goals is to obtain a general or comprehensive view which allows seeing where were going.
In this step, students should skim and scan the chapter. The purpose of surveying the chapter is to get the general idea of the content, structure, organization and plan of the chapter. Surveying the chapter give “the big picture” a framework of the main ideas, which will help to hold the detail information together later”
The steps of the survey as follows:
1) The whole book
a. Read preface, table contents.
b. Leaf through book to get acquainted with the organization and style.
c. Check for the appendices, types that can be useful.
d. Read all the titles and subtitles.
e. Read captions under pictures, charts, graphs or map
f. Read the questions at the end of the chapter
g. If there is a summary read it.
h. Get an overview of what the chapter is about.
2) Individual book
a. Take a few minutes to consider the title.
b. Look at all illustrations, diagrams, graphs.
c. Quickly read the introduction, summary and review questions.
d. Glance at all key words bolted text, questions for consideration, problem sets.
Question is any matter that needs to be deal with or considered. Having students develop questions gives them a purpose for reading. Reading for specific purposes positively influences comprehension. Setting a purpose also aids the students in recalling information. Developing prior for reading result in spontaneous attempts to answer the concentration and attention while reading to find an answer the question and increased comprehension due to the main in its attempt to find an answer to the question. This will make reading a more active process which help with concentration and retention. You will also find that it is easier to identify the important issues and you will, therefore end up with fewer notes to review.
The steps of the question as follows:
a. Use the knowledge you gain in surveying the chapter as basis for asking your self questions that you expect to find answers in the chapter.
b. Turn headings and subheading into questions.
c. If there are not headings, ask questions that their teacher would ask.
d. Ask your self “what did my teacher say about this chapter or topic when it was assigned?
e. Ask your self “what have I already known about topic?
f. Read actively by asking why, who, when, what, where, how, and which.
g. Question all statement of fact and the evidence they are based on.
h. Concentrate on relationships based on concepts introduced earlier.
Read is to look at otherwise scan (as letters or other symbols representing word or sentences) with mental formulation of the words or sentences represented.” Reading promotes an active search for answer to the specific questions that students developed. If forces the students to concentrate for better comprehension and aids in lengthening attention span.
Students should read each section of the text to answer questions that were developed in the step above. If the section reread, and it is still unclear, underline the word or jot down and look it up when they finish reading.
The steps of the read as follows:
a. Read the text book, but only section by section actively in looking for the “answer” to the “question” you have posed.
b. Ask yourself, what is the writer’s purpose? What are they trying to get me to think or do? Is he giving facts or his opinions?
c. Look for answers to the question you have developed.
d. Reread captions under pictures, charts, graphs, or maps.
e. While you read, make notes in point form and in your own words at the end of each section or subsection.
f. Note all the underlined, italicized, or bold printed words or phrases.
g. Study graphic aids
h. Reduce your speed for difficult passages.
i. Stop and reread parts that are not clear.
Recite is to find out from reading or writing. This step encourages students to the use their own words and not simply copy from the book. This improves memory and assures greater understanding.
After the students have read the section, they should close their books and write the answers to the questions they developed.The answers should be written in their own words and not copy out of the texts. If the students can not answer a question they should reread. Students should also jot down key examples and make brief note.
Review is looking at target language information, if it is done once is not enough. It must be reviewed in order to be remembered. Students should study their outline and notes and be able to retail what were their own words. Students should try to see relation within the content. If they are unable to the teacher may need to modal for students to look for relationship. Students should be checking their memory by trying to recall main point and sub points. Information from the entire chapter or article is linked together in the reflection phase. The steps in reviewing as follows:
a. Recite and review as continuous process.
b.Make sure you understand the general idea behind what you have read.
c.Use a critical attitude toward material you have read.
d. Relate the new material studied to what you already know.
Reflect is turn back or throw back (light, heat, sound, etc) , reflect is a surface light, heat, sound or image, It sends the light etc. information from the entire chapter or article is linked together in the reflection phase. This step help students clarify their thinking and focus understanding. By reflecting on the reading, students began to think critically about what they have learned and have yet to learn about the topic. This type of critical thinking is necessary.
Reflecting on what has been read also help students to retain understanding for longer periods of time. The more students reflect on the text longer they will remember it and the more likely they will be able to use the knowledge they have retained.
By having students reflect knowledge is related in a meaningful way to what is already known, so that it will be retained and become the basics for further learning. This process is called “Reading beyond the line”. The reader should attempt to develop insight into the topic and make associations among the impotent material noted while reading.
a. Try to link new fact, terms and concepts with information you already know.
b. Think about you can use this information
c. Think about what else you need to know more about.
4. Advantages and Disadvantages SQ4R technique
a. The advantage of using SQ4R technique
1. Be able to help concentration
2. Be able to increase reading efficiency and interest
3. Be able to relate new knowledge to previous knowledge.
4. Be able to help build confidence in ability to recite and take tests.
5. To spend less time memorizing facts.
6. To use less time reading and looking for things you already know
b. The disadvantage of using SQ4R technique
1. SQ4R is not always successful
2. students will have difficulty in following the next material,if don’t mastery SQ4R technique
3. If students are not active in the learning process students will be get bad results in the learning process