a. The Concepts of Scanning
Etymologically, the word “scanning” in Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary is derived from the word ‘scan’ that can be defined as follows: 1). To look at every part carefully, especially because you are looking for a particular thing , 2). To look quickly but not very carefully at a document.
Terminologically, there are some experts that have different definitions for scanning, but here the writer will take several definitions according to the experts as follows: Farrell states that scanning is a reading strategy that involves students reading a text in order to find out specific information. It means that scanning is the ability to find the specific information in reading. Therefore, Readers should know what they are looking for.
A Djiwandono state that, scanning is slows a reading period to identification the information meticulously to find what information we are looking for.” It means that in the scanning process, the readers allowed to slow a reading period in order they get information by identify the text meticulously. By reading meticulously, readers will be able to find what information they are looking for.
Moreover, Tampubolon states that, scanning is reading quickly and focus to find the reading passage substance focus information that has chosen, then read that passage meticulously that the information will be find exactly and understanding clearly. Furthermore, Brown states that, scanning is reading quickly to locate specific information or details. It means that, to get information of the text, readers should read a text quickly and focus on the reading passage. When the reader read that passage meticulously, they will find specific information or details clearly.
Wiratno states that, scanning is tried to get special information of the text. Reading sentence by sentence to get what they are looking for. It means that to find or locate the specific information, the readers must read sentence by sentence of the text. Then, they will get the specific information.
Therefore, Mikulecky and Jeffries states that scanning is important to increase the reading comprehension. This technique used to find out some information quickly. Usually we read word by wordof the sentences.By exercise to used this technique, a reader can learn reading to understand the text with quickly.
Based on the quotations above, it can be inferred that scanning is reading technique that used to find specific information of the text meticulously. Sometimes the readers should read quickly or slow their reading period that is depending on the text. If the text is easy, the readers must be not slow their reading periods.
b. The Procedure of Scanning
Webster proposes the steps in scanning. First, looking for the numbers, letters, steps, first, second or next which is used by author. Second, looking for the words that have different with the other, such as bold faced, italics, front size, style or colors. The last, looking for the key word in the margin, because the author usually put it in the margin.
There are three steps that must be passed for the students to use the scanning strategy correctly. The students must read the text meticulously. They should focus on the parts that are present the specific idea such as numbers, letters, steps, first, second, bold faced, italics, or in a different font size. Scanning by following steps correctly then the students will get maximum result.
Moreover, while first looking for the information or answer the questions. The reader can use these steps that proposed by Webster. First, remember what it is you are looking for so you will not be distracted by other pieces of information. Second, anticipate how the information looks, is it identified by numbers, italics, proper nouns, etc. Third, run your eyes over several lines at one time. Then the last, when you find the information you are looking for, focus your eyes and attention there and read the entire sentence. You may also need to read the sentence before and after as well.
By those steps above, the readers just concentrate on the main question or focus information. The readers can find the answer correctly and quickly. So, they must not read all of paragraph, or word by word. The technique that used is scanning.
Scanning is used to identify the specific ideas of a text. When scanning, readers do not to read every single word to get specific ideas of the text. They should know what they are looking for, because this is the main point of the scanning technique.
1. The step of scanning:
a) Run the eyes to down to find the information.
b) Look the sign : number, spell, the first, second etc.
c) Find out the word that underline, bold or italic.
d) Sometimes the writer put the key word in the first paragraph.